Benefits of Skin Care Ingredients (Part 2)

Skin Care Ingredients in today’s skin care products include alpha-hydroxy acids, beta hydroxy acids, hydroquinone, retinol, kojic acid, copper peptide and more. Learn their effects on wrinkles, fine lines, age spots and other skin problems.

Please read section one first

Vitamin E

     Vitamin E is a good ingredient that is used to help with brightening as well as moisturizing the skin. It can be applied either through a serum or with a cream. It can also be used to help reduce UV radiation damage to the skin as well as fight against free radicals in the air.


     SPF is one of the ingredients that is important in skincare routine and can be used on anyone. Depending on their skin type, as everyone is different, there are different types of sunscreens such as chemical and physical sunscreens. Physical sunscreens are sunscreens that contain zinc and titanium dioxide, also know as mineral sunscreens. Mineral sunscreen is used for someone who may have sensitive skin, hyperpigmentation, melasma, or are at a high risk for sun damage. Physical sunscreens contain ingredients such as octinoxate, homosalate, and others. These ingredients may cause a mild reaction for people who have sensitive skin and may be better off with mineral sunscreen.

Salicylic Acid

    Salicylic is a popular ingredient found in skin care that is used to treat acne prone skin. Salicylic is used to exfoliate the skin, refine pores, and minimize the formation of acne. This is also used as an anti-bacterial ingredient to reduce redness and inflammation. Salicylic should be used cautiously as it can dry out the skin if a high concentration is used, as this is too strong for the skin’s barrier. 

Glycolic Acid

   Glycolic acid is a form of AHA that consists of tiny molecules that can be easily absorbed into the skin. Glycolic is the smallest molecule in AHA’s. Glycolic acid works by increasing cell turnover. It is used as a chemical exfoliator, in which it dissolves the bonds that hold skin cells together. In effects your skin is able to shed dead skin cells more quickly than it would on its own. Glycolic acid is also used to help produce collagen, in which it helps to increase skins elasticity, minimizing fine lines and wrinkles, and making the skin more plumped. As you age, less collagen is produced, in which glycolic acid should be used on a daily basis in order to keep the skin rejuvenated.

Lactic Acid

   Lactic acid is an AHA and has many benefits such as an exfoliator, helps retain moisture in the skin’s barrier, as well as minimizes fine lines and wrinkles. Lactic Acid is a chemical exfoliator, in which it helps to remove dead skin cells, by dissolving its bonds that hold them together. Lactic acid is used to speed up cell turnover, in which it stimulates new cell production. Due to this, it helps to rejuvenate the skin, and gives a brighter and smoother complexion. Lactic acid is different from other AHA’s such as glycolic acid, as it helps to improve and retain skin moisture. It is used to help fade sun spots and any other ageing signs such as age spots. Lactic Acid is a strong ingredient, and may cause an increase in skin sensitivity, especially to UV rays. It is important when using Lactic Acid to use sunscreen in order to protect the skin.

L-Ascorbic Acid

    L-ascorbic acid is used as an anti-ageing ingredient, in which it helps to firm, tighten, and minimize the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. It is used to penetrate into the skin and increase the production of collagen. As we age, we lose collagen, therefore it is important to keep up in order to upkeep collagen in our skin. L-Ascorbic acid can also be used to help brighten the skin and reduce any photo damage cause by UVB rays. This should not be used on someone who may have sensitive skin, or rosacea as it may be too strong for their skin to tolerate.

Mandelic Acid for the Skin

    Mandelic Acid is used to reduce any inflammatory acne, reduce hyperpigmentation, as well as fade any sun damage or age spots. It has a large molecular structure in which it does not penetrate deep into the skin such as glycolic acid, therefore it is gentler on the skin. Mandelic acid can be used on almost all skin types, as it is gentle on skin. This product can be used every day, although if your skin starts to react, causing any redness or burning sensation, it is best not to use every day, and cut back to a couple times a week. Mandelic acid may also increase in cell turnover, increase collagen production, improve skin texture, as well as fade hyperpigmentation. It is important not to combine other AHA ingredients, retinol, or retinoids as this will be too strong on the skin.


    Retinoids are used to help improve acne scars as well is used for anti-ageing properties. Retinoids should be used cautiously as it is strong and may be irritating to skin types that are sensitive. Retinoids are also used to help improve acne scars, hyperpigmentation, reduce fine lines and wrinkles, improve skin texture, as well as fade any age spots. Due to its small molecular structure, it is small enough to get deep into the skin layers. When using retinoid, it is important to wear sunscreen as it makes the skin highly sensitive to sun rays and may damage the skin if not protected.


   Caffeine is an antioxidant that is used to help with ageing and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. This ingredient can be both used in lotions or serums.